Espresso in its historical origin used to be a freshly made cup of →coffee, brewed quickly. In the beginning, huge cups were served. When pressure was added at about 10 bar, crema built up on the surface and the beverage got smaller.
Espresso and filter coffee are quite similar. Both are drip-coffees, the only real difference is the pressure used during brewing. Espresso is approximately 10 times more intense than filter; but surprisingly, depending on the beans, these two brewing methods produce almost the same flavour profile.
Extraction is a chemical process. We use an extraction medium (here: →water) to extract from another material in any state of aggregation (here: solid coffee beans).
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