Is a key factor when it comes to extraction speed, see →flowrate. It is said that flavours are not able to develop properly if the temperature is too low. Off-tastes like under-extraction acidity are usually the result of a wrong →recipe or too low temperatures. The brighter your coffee was roasted, the less energy it received during the roasting process. So you will need more energy — higher temperature — to extract it properly. Darker →roasts, accordingly, need slightly lower temperatures.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is a measurement unit. The number gives us a certain idea about the strength of a →coffee. For measuring the TDS from a cup of coffee you need a refractometer. This important tool points a monochrome light through the coffee probe. The deviation of light is calculated to a TDS unit. Usually in the range of 1,00–1,50 for coffee and 7,00–12,00 for espresso. For further use you need a brewing control chart or an app to calculate →extraction and →flowrate.
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